Indirect Costs (Society/Employers)


Lead Author(s): 

Charles G. Helmick, MD, CDC Team

Supporting Author(s): 

Sylvia I. Watkins-Castillo, PhD

Indirect costs as used in this report reflects estimates of earnings losses for people with a work history who are unable to work because of a medical condition. It does not reflect supplemental measures such as reduced productivity, worker replacement, or early retirement due to medical conditions.

Indirect costs are not estimated for the broad category of arthritis and joint pain.


  • 2014

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