By Demographics


Lead Author(s): 

Edward H. Yelin, PhD
Miriam Cisternas, MA

Supporting Author(s): 

Sylvia I. Watkins-Castillo, PhD

Women account for both a higher proportion of the population with musculoskeletal disease and more than half of total costs. With 36% of women reporting musculoskeletal diseases compared to 30% of men, women accounted for 56% of aggregate costs in 2011.

Whites and non-Hispanics account for the majority of cost, with 84% and 92%, respectively. Although a similar share of one-third of all persons in all education levels report musculoskeletal diseases, due to lower numbers with higher education, these groups represent a smaller share of aggregate total cost.

About one in four persons with no insurance report musculoskeletal disease, but the much lower cost and smaller group of persons means that only 3% of aggregate total cost is represented by the uninsured. (Reference Table 10.8 PDF CSV)
Aggregate Total Expenditures for Musculoskeletal Diseases by Demographic Characteristics, United States, 2011  


  • 2014

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