By Demographics


Lead Author(s): 

Edward H. Yelin, PhD
Miriam Cisternas, MA

Supporting Author(s): 

Sylvia I. Watkins-Castillo, PhD

Expenditures for musculoskeletal diseases did not differ substantially by gender, race, and education level in 2011. On an unadjusted basis, women with musculoskeletal diseases had only 3% higher average expenditures than men. Nonwhites also had 3% higher expenditures than whites. On the other hand, non-Hispanics report 30% higher expenditures than Hispanics, and those who are married or divorced, separated, or widowed had substantially higher expenditures than those who have never married (presumably due to age). Persons who are divorced, widowed, or separated, at $8,951, had the highest unadjusted mean expenditures for musculoskeletal diseases.

Lack of insurance had the most profound impact on health expenditures for persons with musculoskeletal conditions. Expenditures on behalf of those without insurance, at $2,479, were only a third as large as those with private insurance ($7,842) and a quarter as much as those with public insurance ($10,142). Thus, lack of health insurance is associated with dramatically lower expenditure levels, inconsistent with the belief that persons who lack insurance are somehow able to obtain care. (Reference Table 10.8 PDF CSV)
Total Mean Expenditures for Musculoskeletal Diseases by Demographic Characteristics, United States, 2011


  • 2014

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